This page features descriptions and literature for:
• Industrial Processes
• BioMass & Waste-To-Energy
• Gas Turbines
• Stationary Diesel & Gas Engines
Johnson Matthey has provided catalysts to reduce VOC emissions from industrial manufacturing processes since the 1960s. VOCs, NVOCs, halogenated VOCs, as well as CO, NOx and other malodorous substances can be vented or discharged from a wide range of processes and the type and concentration can vary significantly depending on the process conditions and application.
Most VOCs are emitted from solvent-based processes, but also can come from unreacted feedstock or decomposition products. Many process streams also contain inorganic material such as dust and carbonaceous PM that can influence the applicability of abatement technology.
Typical examples of VOC emissions include ethanol and acetaldehyde from bakeries, caffeine and other VOCs from coffee roasting from formaldehyde, phenols and phthalates from resin manufacturing. Petrochemical plants emit a variety of aromatic and aliphatic Chemical plants that make Purified Terephthalic Acid (PTA) resins emit methyl bromide and benzene. Printing plants emit alcohol and acetate-based compounds.
Other VOC sources include chlorinated HCs used in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals or as solvents in wooden furniture manufacture and ethylene oxide from hospital sterilization ovens.
PTA (Purified Terephthalic Acid)
Oxidation catalysts used to reduce VOC emissions from PTA (purified terephthalic acid) plants contained high amounts of precious metals such as platinum and palladium, making the catalysts fairly expensive.
So, a Johnson Matthey R&D team went to work and created a new catalyst -- SC29 PTA -- that contains no precious metals, but maintains the same performance. And at a significantly reduced cost.
Nearly all PTA is consumed in making polyester, including polyester fiber, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottle resin and polyester film.
PTA plants emit CO and a variety of VOCs - methyl bromide, methyl acetate, xylene, acetic acid and methanol. Together they cause smog; methyl bromide also is a stratospheric ozone depleter. Until recently, oxidation catalysts using precious metals were the only way to control these emissions.
One of the first applications for Johnson Matthey's SC29 PTA catalyst produced some incredible benefits:
• Reduced the operating temperature from 375° to 280° C, which cut operating costs
• Replaced the existing precious metals catalyst, making the catalyst replacement cost very effective, especially since the price of precious metals has escalated
• Lowered the cost of ownership since the original catalyst containing platinum and palladium was reclaimed for $322,000, and the same volume of SC29 PTA with its sale price plus site costs for removal of the old catalyst and installation cost only about $300,000
The bottom line? The new catalyst has performed better than expected and has proven to be a real breakthrough for the PTA industry.
Download information below for Industrial Engines and Processes in PDF format:
Biomass & Waste-To-Energy
Johnson Matthey supplies dedicated solutions for Biomass and Waste-to-Energy applications.
Our SCR systems are capable of operating in the very high dust and high pollutant environment. As a result, we have built an extensive base of experience in this area. Our SCR systems are ensuring high reliability and safe operation of the plant.
After an intensive cooperation in the design phase, the SCR plant is constructed on site and equipped with catalysts. Then a commissioning phase starts, in close cooperation with the operators of the plant. The final step is training of the operational staff. Johnson Matthey offers various options in a catalyst control and service program. Under a catalyst control and service agreement your catalyst will be checked periodically and the system will be checked during preventive maintenance calls. If requested a full service contract also covering corrective maintenance can be arranged.
Download information below for SINOx Catalysts for Waste Incineration Plants in PDF format:
Johnson Matthey pioneered oxidation catalyst for gas turbines in the 1970s. Since then, oxidation catalysts have been installed in some of the most environmentally challenging applications, consistently providing greater than 90% destruction of CO, VOCs, formaldehyde and other toxic compounds. Our core expertise in catalysts has allowed us to stay at the cutting edge of new catalyst development meeting the challenges of ever increasing regulatory requirements.
Our oxidation catalysts are formulated with Platinum Group Metals (PGMs) to achieve maximum conversion of pollutants at turbine temperatures, whether it is a simple or combined cycle unit. Our high activity catalyst plus flow-through-metal monolith design delivers the smallest catalyst package and the lowest backpressure in the industry.
We have thousands of cubic feet of oxidation catalyst installed throughout the world in some of the most environmentally challenging applications. This enhanced catalyst was designed specifically for gas turbines. Our unique substrate foil combined with an optimized catalyst coating, improves the mixing of exhaust gases, and increases catalyst activity. This level of pollutant destruction, with less catalyst volume, results in lower backpressure and sizable savings over the life of the turbine.
Johnson Matthey recently developed a compact extruded ceramic honeycomb SCR catalyst that provides high NOX conversion performance in a smaller package. It is a low back pressure design giving the turbine owner/operator greater flexibility. The SCR catalyst itself is the most robust available on the market today providing the widest operating temperature window for a variety of turbine operating conditions. Johnson Matthey's SCR catalyst modules are ideally suited for new applications or they can be installed in exiting housings.
Download information below for Gas Turbine Applications in PDF format:
Stationary Diesel & Gas Engines
Reduce NOX, CO, Hazardous Air Pollutants and Particulate Matter (PM) from Stationary Reciprocating IC Engines of All Sizes
To reduce NOX and CO, our SCR and CO catalyst systems are engineered for multi-MW engine projects providing turnkey power, including urea supply. Our complete line of pre-engineered SCR and CO systems are packaged for medium power projects. These systems have proven to operate in the harshest environments around the world. Our novel urea injector is designed for plug-free operation regardless of engine duty cycle.
Our Modulex™ line of catalytic converters reduce NOX, CO and HAPs/HC from smaller engines with or without sound attenuation. The Modulex converter is modular in design to allow for different catalyst and flange sizes as well as a hatch for easy access to the catalyst for cleaning or replacement. They meet the most stringent air emission standards.
To reduce PM from stationary diesel engines, our patented CRT® (Continuously Regenerating Technology) is preferred. Our CRT has been installed on millions of vehicles as well as on hundreds of thousands of trucks and buses. It is capable of reducing over 90% of the PM and is widely used in emergency back up diesel generators as well as prime power generator engines. Our CRT(+) is CARB (California Air Resources Board) verified for emergency and prime diesel generators.
Exhaust monitoring is an area of special importance to us. We can engineer a Continuous Emissions Monitoring System (CEMS) for feed-forward or feed-backward designs or to provide a Parametric Emissions Monitoring System (PEMS) for a more economical approach. To meet specific requirements such as the EPA's RICE NESHAP regulation, Johnson Matthey's HAPGuard™ Monitor helps the operator to insure that the exhaust temperature is within the range of 750°F to 1250°F for rich burn gas engines and 450°F to 1350°F for lean burn gas engines. For diesel engines, Johnson Matthey's unique SootAlert® Monitor checks the time, pressure, and temperature of the CRT system, and shows you a green light when the filter is clean, a yellow light when it has begun to accumulate soot and a red light indicating that it is time to regenerate the filter.
Three Way - NSCR - TWC Catalyst - Rich Burn
Two Way - Oxidation Catalysts - Lean Burn
Download information below for Gas Engine Emission Control in PDF format:
SCR Systems for Marine Drive and Auxiliary Engines
Growing concern over the environmental impact of shipping has forced local, regional and global action, requiring reductions in emissions of NOx, SOx, VOCs, PM and other toxics. Johnson Matthey’s SCR system and other catalytic technology helps the largest ocean-going vessels and smaller ships comply with existing and anticipated regulations.
Globally, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) has set a progressive timetable for limiting NOx and SOx emissions. In Emission Control Areas (ECA) tighter limits and an accelerated timetable of restrictions apply to ocean up to 200 nautical miles from the coastal baselines. The number and coverage of ECAs, including those in effect for the American and Canadian coastlines, is growing.
In October 2008, the IMO adopted stringent new standards to control harmful exhaust emissions from the engines that power ships. The member states of IMO agreed to amend Annex VI to the International Convention on the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL), adopting new Tier 3 standards to control NOx and fuel sulfur. The most stringent of these new emission standards apply to ships operating in the ECAs.
• Beginning in 2015, fuel used by all vessels operating in these areas cannot exceed 0.1 percent fuel sulfur (1000 ppm). This requirement is expected to reduce PM and SOx emissions by more than 85 percent.
• Beginning in 2016, new engines on vessels operating in these areas must use emission controls that achieve an 80 percent reduction in NOx emissions.
In most cases, ships already have the capability to store two or more fuels. However, to meet the 2015 requirement of 1,000 ppm fuel sulfur, some vessels may need to be modified for additional distillate fuel storage capacity. As an alternative to using lower sulfur fuel, ship operators may choose to equip their vessels with exhaust gas cleaning devices or scrubbers, which extract sulfur from the exhaust.
IMO regulations will have a significant impact on ship engine activity (for propulsion, auxiliary power generation, etc) in ECAs with the NOx limit restrictions (for ships launched starting in 2016) expected to require the use of after-treatment technology.
The most effective means of removing NOx is the SCR system. Nations such as Norway are using market instruments such as the NOx Fond to force a reduction in such emissions. SCR is proving to be a popular choice as the best available technology.
Johnson Matthey's SCR Systems, with urea injection, have been successfully applied to shipping to remove up to 95% of NOx. Our first SCR system was installed in 1995.
Today, more than 50 ships burning MDO, HFO, ULSA or LNG fuels are equipped with Johnson Matthey technology. That includes 163 SCR systems on marine diesel drive and APU engines and 25 SCR system on marine boilers.
Johnson Matthey manufactures the key component of the system -- the catalyst -- and engineers it, offering vessel owners long-term support from conceptual design through engineering through after-sales service.
In offshore processes such as LNG re-gasification, local regulations can require restrictive limits on emissions of VOCs, CO and NOx. Johnson Matthey's family of products, for example SCR in conjunction with an oxidation catalyst, have been used to meet these requirements with excellent results.
Island power systems -- gensets -- are also part of Johnson Matthey’s marine emissions control application expertise. Johnson Matthey has extensive experience with these packaged combinations of stationary diesel engines, generators and various ancillary devices, including base, canopy, sound attenuation, control systems, circuit breakers, jacket water heaters and starting system.
Johnson Matthey has designed, engineered, synchronized and serviced numerous of these prime power installations across the globe, which usually include at least three, and as many as twenty, diesel generators.
In the U.S., EPA is addressing emissions from marine engines in two ways - through their fuels and through their emission limits.
In May 2004, as part of the Clean Air Act Nonroad Diesel Rule, EPA finalized new requirements for nonroad diesel fuel that decrease the allowable levels of sulfur in fuel used in marine vessels by 99 percent. These fuel improvements became effective in 2007.
In March 2008, EPA finalized its three-part program to dramatically reduce emissions from marine diesel engines below 30 liters per cylinder displacement.
These include marine propulsion engines used on vessels from recreational and small fishing boats to towboats, tugboats and Great Lake freighters, and marine auxiliary engines ranging from small generator sets to large generator sets on ocean-going vessels.
EPA also has proposed NOx control regulations affecting marine applications in Tier Stages 2 and 3 that will continue to become effective through 2020.
In offshore processes such as LNG re-gasification, local regulations can require restrictive limits on emissions of VOCs, CO and NOx. Johnson Matthey's technology, for example, SCR in conjunction with an oxidation catalyst, has been used to meet these requirements with excellent results.
Download information below for Gas Engine Emission Control in PDF format:
Regulations covering the emissions from diesel engines in locomotives have not kept pace with the emission limits placed on heavy-duty trucks, buses and non-road equipment. However, EPA has recently issued New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for Tier 4 line haul and switcher locomotives.
A variety of technologies including zeolite SCR, active-regen DPF, ASC (ammonia slip catalyst) and engine modifications are being used to meet these stringent Tier 4 NOX and PM limits.
Johnson Matthey's CRT and SCRT systems are particularly suitable for these applications and have been gaining extensive field experience in HDD trucks. Johnson Matthey is one of the first companies to introduce Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalyst for HDD trucks in Europe and our ongoing R&D program will advance the technology for locomotive application.
The first CRT systems were fitted to DMUs (railcars) in the mid-1990s and the longest serving of these have now demonstrated 1.5m km of effective and trouble-free service. Experience shows that these systems are as effective in retrofit applications on rail as they are on road vehicles.
Johnson Matthey also has first hand experience of the application of exhaust after treatment systems to locomotives and track maintenance vehicles, including research into PM emission control from locomotives, including a major project at the Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, Texas.
The US EPA's NSPS provides a model regulation for locomotives. Emissions standards for new engines have already been agreed upon by the European Union.